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  • Research Publications

    United Hospital supports nursing research and evidence-based practice activities of all nurses from the staff nurse at the bedside to the advanced practice nurse and other nursing leaders.

    Nursing research includes the generation, dissemination and utilization of new nursing knowledge that promotes excellence in professional nursing practice. An evidence-based culture is enhanced through the commitment at all levels of management, from our Vice President of Patient Care to patient care directors and patient care managers, a dedicated director of nursing research and quality, our advanced practice nurses and the Nursing Research Council.

    For information about how you can conduct a research project at United, view pdf-icon Nursing Research Approval Process.

    Publications (2005 to present)*

    2011 Research

    View all 2011 research


    • Milbrett P, Halm M. Characteristics and predictors of frequent utilization of emergency services. J Emergency Nursing.
    • Halm M. (2008) "Essential oils for the management of symptoms in the critically ill." Am J Crit Care, 17(2).
    • Halm M. (2008) "Flushing hemodynamic lines: What does the science tell us?" Am J Crit Care, 17(1): 73-76.


    • Sabo J. Clinical Research in Practice: A Guide for the Bedside Scientist (Book review). Clinical Nurse Specialist. 21 (1).
    • Sabo J, Chlan L, Savik K. Relationships among patient characteristics, co-morbidities and vascular complications post-percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart Lung. 37(3):190-195.
    • Halm M. (2007) "To strip or not to strip? Physiologic effects of chest tube manipulation." Am J Crit Care, 16(6): 609-612.
    • Halm M, Bakas T. (2007) "Factors associated with caregiver depressive symptoms, outcomes, and perceived physical health following coronary artery bypass surgery." J Cardiovascular Nursing, 22(6): 508-515.
    • Halm M, Lindquist R, Treat-Jacobson, Savik K. (2007). Caregiver burden and outcomes of care giving of spouses of coronary artery bypass surgery patients. Heart Lung. 36 (3): 170-187.


    • Halm, M, Sabo, J, & Rudiger, M. (2006). "Patient and family advisory councils: Keeping a pulse on our customers." Critical Care Nurse. 26(5), 58-67.
    • Disch J, Chlan L, Mueller C, Akinkuotu T, Sabo J, Feldt K, Bjorkland D. (2006) "The Densford Clinical Scholars Program: Improving patient care through research partnerships." Journal of Nursing Administration. 36(12).
    • Halm M, Lindquist R, Treat-Jacobson, Savik K. (2006). "Correlates of caregiver burden after coronary artery bypass surgery." Nursing Research. 55 (6): 426-436.
    • Halm M, Sabo J, Rudiger M. (2006). "Patient and family advisory councils: Keeping a pulse on our customers." Crit Care Nurse. 26(5), 58-67. Heart & Lung - J Acute and Crit Care.

    • Sendelbach SE, Halm MA, Doran KA, Miller EH, Gaillard P. (2006). "Effects of music therapy on physiological and psychological outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac surgery." J Cardiovascular Nursing. 21(3), 194-100.


    • Sabo J, Knudtson B, Conbere P, Howard P, Rusch A, Dalen S, Wilson W, & Tourville C. (2005). "Developing an outcome-based multidisciplinary care planning tool: process and outcomes." J Nurs Care Qual. 20(2), 145-53.
    • Halm M. (2005). "Family presence during resuscitation: A critical review of the literature." Am JCrit Care. 14(6), 494-511.
    • Halm M, Peterson M, Kandels M, Sabo J, Blalock M, Braden R, Gryczman A, Krisko-Hagel K, Larson D, Lemay D, Sisler B, Strom L, & Topham, D. (2005). "Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction: A replication study." Clin Nurse Spec. 19(5), 241-51.
    • Chlan L, Sabo J, & Savik K. (2005). "Effects of three groin compression methods on patient discomfort, distress, and vascular complications following a percutaneous coronary intervention procedure." Nursing Res. 54(6), 391-8.
    • Sandau K., Lindquist R, Sendelbach S, Watanuki S, Halm M, Savik K. (2005). "Significance of preoperative depression on subjective health status 3-months post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (Abstract)." Am J Crit Care. 14(3), 256.
    • Sandau K. Lindquist R, Sendelbach S, Watanuki S, Halm M, Savik K. (2005). "Patient-perceived changes in neuro cognitive symptoms and sleep 3 months post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) (Abstract)." Am J Crit Care. 14(3), 264.
  • Positive deviance for pain management

    This 10-minute video explains positive deviance and how clinicians at United Hospital used the process to improve how they help patients manage pain.

  • expand to learn moreRead video transcript.