Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Boateng H & Wilckens JH: Patellofemoral Syndrome. In: Frassica FJ, Sponseller PD, Wilckens JH, eds. The 5-Minute Orthopaedic Consult, 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2007.

Heintjes,E, Berger,MY, Bierma-Zeinstra,SM, et al: Pharmacotherapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2004; 2004(3):CD003470--.

Witvrouw,E, Werner,S, Mikkelsen,C, et al: Clinical classification of patellofemoral pain syndrome: guidelines for non-operative treatment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2005; 13(2):122-130.

Juhn,MS: Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review and guidelines for treatment. Am Fam Physician, 1999; 60(7):2012-2022.

Post,WR: Patellofemoral pain: results of nonoperative treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2005; 2005(436):55-59.

University of Michigan Health System: Knee pain or swelling: acute or chronic. Available at, Accessed August 18, 2006.

Fredericson,M & Yoon,K: Physical examination and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2006; 85(3):234-243.

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