A migraine is a headache that causes severe pain and other symptoms. Migraines can affect your ability to do everyday activities. Migraines may last anywhere from a few hours to several days. Some people only have migraines once or twice a year. Others may have them as often as one or more times a week. Some people have warning signs before their migraines start. Migraines that have warning signs before they start are called classic migraines. Migraines that start without warning signs are called common migraines.
Why do migraines happen? Migraines are thought to be a type of vascular (VAS-ku-lar) headache. Vascular headaches are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the head. Migraines may start when blood vessels in your head widen or swell. This can happen for many reasons. For example, women are more likely to have migraines than men because of the female hormone called estrogen. Migraines can also run in families.
What are some things that can trigger (start) migraines? Things that trigger migraines are different from person to person. Over time, you may learn that you get migraines after certain foods or experiences. Keeping a daily diary or calendar of your migraines may help you learn what triggers them. Some things that may trigger migraines include:
What are the warning signs that a migraine is about to start? Classic migraines have warning signs before the headache starts. These signs usually start 15 to 60 minutes before the headache does. However, some people notice changes in their body up to three days before the start of a migraine. There are a wide variety of warning signs which are different from person to person. The more common migraine warning signs include:
A migraine headache usually begins as a dull ache. It may begin around the eye or temple (on the side of the forehead near the hairline). The pain may increase to the point where you cannot do everyday activities. The pain may be on one or both sides of your head. Migraine pain may be throbbing, pulsing, or pounding. It is common to have nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and vomiting before and during a migraine headache. You may be more bothered by light, noise, or smells.
You may need to make lifestyle changes when you find out what causes your headaches. Learn how to control your stress.
If your headaches are new or you have had them but they have changed, tests may be done to be sure you do not have a serious health problem. Caregivers may give you tips on preventing headaches. You may also need medicine to prevent or treat the headaches. Pain medicine will work better if you take it when the headache starts.
The following may be helpful and may decrease your need for pain medicine:
Before taking any herbs or supplements, ask your caregiver if it is OK. Talk to your caregiver about how much you should take. If you are using this medicine without instructions from your caregiver, follow the directions on the label. Do not take more medicine or take it more often than the directions tell you to. The herbs and supplements listed may or may not help treat your condition.
Other ways to treat your symptoms are available to you.
Talk to your caregiver if:
You have the right to help plan your care. To help with this plan, you must learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. You can then discuss the treatment options with your caregivers. Work with them to decide what care will be used to treat you. You always have the right to refuse treatment.
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