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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

What is it?

"HIV" stands for human immunodeficiency (ih-mew-no-d-FISH-in-c) virus. Once you are infected with this virus, you will probably be infected for life. "AIDS" stands for acquired immune deficiency (d-FISH-in-c) syndrome (SIN-drome). To get AIDS, you must be infected with HIV and have a weakened immune system. Scientists are making progress with treatments for HIV so people with AIDS are living longer and healthier lives.

Causes:

Your immune system protects your body from infection. The HIV virus weakens part of your immune system by damaging the helper T-cells (also called CD4+ cells), a type of white blood cell (WBC). T-cells help your body fight certain kinds of infections. With AIDS, the number of T-cells is low and cannot help fight these infections. The HIV virus can also cause certain types of cancers. It is these infections and cancers that actually make people with HIV or AIDS sick.

Signs and Symptoms:

There are 2 ways that doctors can diagnose AIDS. A positive HIV test and either a T-cell count less than 200 or an infection that only affects people with weakened immunity. A healthy adult's T-cell count should be more than 500. You may have HIV in your body for some time and not know it. You may have one or more of the following symptoms:

With AIDS, your body has trouble fighting off germs. You can get infected with germs that do not bother most people, often in the lungs or brain. You may also get some rare kinds of pneumonia. One of these is pneumocystis (new-mo-SIS-tis) carinii (KUH-rih-nee-i) pneumonia (new-MOAN-yuh). This is also called PCP and is a lung infection. You may also get Kaposi's (kuh-PO-zees) sarcoma (KS), a form of cancer.

How is HIV spread from person to person? The following are ways that HIV can be spread:

How is HIV not spread? There are many false beliefs about how HIV may be spread from person to person. Following are the ways HIV is not spread:

What are the infections and cancers I could get because I have AIDS?

Wellness Recommendations:

Medical Care:

Dietary Measures:

Herbs and Supplements:

Before taking any herbs or supplements, ask your caregiver if it is OK. Talk to your caregiver about how much you should take. If you are using this medicine without instructions from your caregiver, follow the directions on the label. Do not take more medicine or take it more often than the directions tell you to. The herbs and supplements listed may or may not help treat your condition.

Herbs:

Supplements:

Complementary Therapies:

Other ways of treating your symptoms:

Other ways to treat your symptoms are available to you.

Talk to your caregiver if:

SEEK CARE IMMEDIATELY IF:

Care Agreement:

You have the right to help plan your care. To help with this plan, you must learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. You can then discuss treatment options with your caregivers. Work with them to decide what care may be used to treat you. You always have the right to refuse treatment.

References:

1. Carson VB: Prayer, meditation, exercise, and special diets: behaviors of the hardy person with HIV/AIDS. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 1993; 4(3):18-28.

2. Hattori T, Ikematsu S, Koito A et al: Preliminary evidence for inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on HIV replication in patients with AIDS. Antiviral Res 1989; 11:255-262.

3. Heathcock R, McLauchlin J, Newton LH et al: Survey of food safety awareness among HIV positive individuals. AIDS Care 1998; 10(2):237-241.

4. Jagodzinski PP, Wiaderkiewicz R, Kurzawski G et al: Mechanism of the inhibitory effect of curdlan sulfate on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Virology 1994; 202(2):735-745.

5. Kassler WJ, Blanc P & Greenblatt R: The use of medicinal herbs by human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151:2281-2288.

6. Kotler DP: Human immunodeficiency virus-related wasting: malabsorption syndromes. Semin Oncol 1998; 25(2 Suppl 6):70-75.

7. Lu WB, Wen RX & Guan CF: A report on 8 seronegative converted HIV/AIDS patients with traditional Chinese medicine. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1997; 17(5):271-273.

8. Moretti S, Alesse E, Di Marzio L et al: Effect of L-carnitine on human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection-associated apoptosis: a pilot study. Blood 1998; 91(10):3817-3824.

9. Semba RD & Tang AM: Micronutrients and the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Br J Nutr 1999; 81(3):181-189.

10. Stack JA, Bell SJ, Burke PA et al: High-energy, high-protein, oral, liquid, nutrition supplementation in patients with HIV infection: effect on weight status in relation to incidence of secondary infection. J Am Diet Assoc 1996; 96(4):337-341.

11. Tang AM, Graham NM & Saah AJ: Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143(12):1244-1256.

12. Taylor DN: Effects of a behavioral stress-management program on anxiety, mood, self-esteem, and T-cell count in HIV positive men. Psychol Rep 1995; 76(2):451-457.


Last Updated: 9/15/2016

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