What is a non-epileptic seizure? Non-epileptic seizure (NES) is a short period of symptoms that change how you move, think, or feel. NES looks like an epileptic seizure, but there are no electrical changes in the brain. NES is a serious condition. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent further problems.
What causes a non-epileptic seizure? NES is more common in women and in people who are between 15 and 35 years old. There are 2 types of NES:
Physiologic is caused by conditions that affect blood, oxygen, and sugar available to the brain. Common triggers are drugs, alcohol, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), sudden drops in blood pressure, and abnormal sleep patterns.
Psychogenic is caused by the body's reaction to severe mental stress. Common triggers are depression, hallucinations, mild head injuries, and sexual or physical abuse.
What are the signs and symptoms of a non-epileptic seizure?
- Twitching in your arms or legs that lasts more than 2 minutes
- Crying, screaming, or weeping
- Head, neck, and spine bent backwards
- Side to side head movements
- Strong or powerful pushing of the hips
- Thrashing or violent movements, such as striking at walls or breaking pieces of furniture
- Tongue biting
How is a non-epileptic seizure diagnosed?
Blood tests: You may need blood taken to give caregivers information about how your body is working. The blood may be taken from your hand, arm, or IV.
MRI: This scan uses powerful magnets and a computer to take pictures of your brain. It will also take pictures of the blood vessels and structures in your head. You may be given dye, also called contrast, before the test. Tell caregivers if you are allergic to dye, iodine, or seafood. Remove all jewelry, and tell caregivers if you have any metal in or on your body. Metal can cause serious injury. Tell caregivers if you cannot lie still or are anxious or afraid of closed spaces.
CT scan: This test is also called a CAT scan. An x-ray and computer are used to take pictures of your skull and brain. You may be given dye, also called contrast, before the test. Tell the caregiver if you are allergic to dye, iodine, or seafood.
EEG: This test is also called an electroencephalogram. Many small pads or metal discs are put on your head. Each has a wire that is hooked to a machine. This machine prints a paper tracing of brain wave activity from different parts of your brain. Caregivers look at the tracing to see how your brain is working.
Video-electroencephalography: A video-electroencephalogram records behavior and the EEG at the same time. Changes in behavior are related to changes in the EEG.
How is a non-epileptic seizure treated?
Antianxiety medicine: This medicine may be given to decrease anxiety and help you feel calm and relaxed.
Antidepressants: These medicines are mainly given to decrease the symptoms of depression.
Cognitive behavioral therapy: With a therapist, you will learn to face the feared object or situation slowly and carefully. You will also learn to control the mental and physical reactions of fear.
Psychotherapy: Your therapist may include your family or people who are close to you during these talks.
What should be done for a person who is having an epileptic seizure? The following can help prevent injuries:
Do not hold or tie the person down.
Do not place anything in the person's mouth or try to force his teeth apart. The person is not in danger of swallowing his tongue.
Do not pour any liquid into the person's mouth or offer food or medicines until he is fully awake.
- If possible, turn the person on his side during the attack.
- Observe the length and type of movement of the seizure. Remember the position of the person's head or eyes during the attack.
- Place something soft under the person's head and loosen his clothing. Clear the area around him of sharp and hard objects.
- Stay with the person until the seizure ends. Let the person rest until he is fully awake.
Where can I get more information?
- American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
3615 Wisconsin Avenue NW
Washington , DC 20016
Phone: 1- 202 - 966-7300
Web Address: http://www.aacap.org
- American Academy of Family Physicians
11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway
Leawood , KS 66211-2680
Phone: 1- 913 - 906-6000
Phone: 1- 800 - 274-2237
Web Address: http://www.aafp.org
What are the risks of a non-epileptic seizure? Medicines may cause dry mouth, fast heartbeat, constipation, sleepiness, or weight gain. Untreated NES may become a long-term condition that prevents you from having a normal life. Your health, quality of life, and ability to function may greatly change. NES treatment is more difficult if these problems are present.
When should I contact my caregiver? Contact your caregiver if:
- You are depressed and feel you cannot cope with your illness.
- You are confused or cannot think clearly.
- You have new symptoms that you did not have at your last caregiver visit.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
When should I seek immediate care? Seek care immediately or call 911 if:
- You feel like fainting or are lightheaded or too dizzy to stand up.
- You were injured during or after a seizure.
- You think about hurting or killing yourself or someone else.
- You have chest pain, tightness, or pressure that may spread to your shoulders, arms, jaw, neck, or back.
- You had a seizure that continued for more than 5 minutes.
- You are having breathing problems and your lips, fingernails, or face turn blue.
You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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