The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, headache, or other symptoms.
Influenza and flu shots
Commonly known as the flu, influenza is a respiratory (nose, throat, lungs) illness cause by influenza viruses (germs). An annual flu shot is one of the best ways to avoid a bad case of the flu.
While there are different types of ear infections, the most common is called otitis media, which means an inflammation and infection of the middle ear.
Strep throat is caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria. It is the most common bacterial infection of the throat.
A runny nose can be due to colds, allergies, sinus infections or the flu. The nose is runny when there is an excess of mucus secretions.
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Pertussis is caused by bacteria that live in the mouth, nose and throat. Pertussis can cause severe coughing, vomiting and troubles breathing. It is called whooping cough because it causes the infected person to make a loud "whooping" sound during a severe coughing spell.
Acetaminophen treats minor aches and pain and reduces fever.
Robitussin-DM is a cough/cold combination medicine used to relieve the cough due to colds. It includes two active ingredients: guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.
Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal or sinus congestion caused by the common cold. It is also used to relieve ear congestion caused by ear inflammation or infection.
Coughing is an important way to keep your throat and airways clear. However, excessive coughing may mean you have an illness.
A sore throat or pharyngitis is an infection of the pharynx, the area between the tonsils and the larynx (voice box). This whole area is called the throat. Pharyngitis may be the first sign that you have an illness, like a cold or the flu.
Sinus infection or sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses that occurs with a bacterial infection.
Antibiotics are medicines that fight infections caused by bacteria (germs).
Cleansing hands is the easiest way to reduce the risk of spreading germs that cause infections.
Virus or bacteria?
Most infections are caused by a virus or bacteria.
- Viruses cause the cold and the flu. Antibiotic medicine cannot cure viral infections. But a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine for severe cases of the flu or to prevent flu-related medical problems.
- Bacteria cause ear infection and strep throat, among other infections. They can be treated with antibiotics prescribed by a doctor.
Virus versus bacteria
Your doctor will decide if your illness is viral or bacterial. Here are a few examples:
most runny noses
most sore throats
Do antibiotics help?
Cold care (and why antibiotics won't help your cold)
Your doctor won't treat your cold with antibiotics. This is important.
When antibiotics are used too often, the bacteria change. They become resistant. This means the antibiotics will no longer work. Once resistant to antibiotics, bacteria can multiply and be passed on to other people.
Coping with your cold
Listed below are some products that can help you cope with your cold. Read the package instructions. Call your doctor or pharmacist with any questions.
- Cough drops: Use to soothe your sore throat and suppress your cough.
- Tylenol ® (acetaminophen): Use to relieve your aches and pains and to reduce your fever.
- Robitussin-DM ® (guaifenesin/dextromethorphan): Use to loosen phlegm in your lungs and suppress a dry cough.
- Do not use if you have had a cough for a long time or a cough that will not stop.
- Sudafed ® (pseudoephedrine): Use to relieve sinus pressure and nasal congestion.
- Do not use if you have high blood pressure, heart disease, glaucoma, thyroid disease, diabetes or an enlarged prostate.
- This can cause nervousness, insomnia or "the jitters."
What else you can do for a cold
Reviewed by: Allina Health Patient Education experts; Steven Bergeson, MD, medical director of quality, Allina Health clinics; Lynn Berg, director of risk and safety, Allina Health clinics; Cindy Larson, infection control practitioner, Mercy Hospital
First Published: 12/11/2003
Last Reviewed: 06/15/2010