Diabetes mellitus type 2 in adults
What is it?
Diabetes (di-uh-BE-tez) is also called diabetes mellitus (MEL-i-tus). There are three main types of diabetes. You have type 2 diabetes. It may be called non-insulin dependent or adult onset diabetes. With type 2 diabetes, your body has trouble using insulin. Your body may also not make enough insulin. If there is not enough insulin or if it is not working right, sugar will build up in your blood. Type 2 diabetes is more common in overweight people who are older than 40 years and are not active. Type 2 diabetes is also being found more often in children who are overweight. There is no cure for diabetes but you can have a long and active life if your diabetes is controlled.
How did I get type 2 diabetes?
Signs and Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes may happen slowly over months or years. Some people have signs and symptoms that are so mild that they do not notice them. You may have one or more of the following symptoms of hyperglycemia (hi-per-gli-SE-me-ah) or high blood sugar:
What is hypoglycemia?
People that have diabetes can sometimes have hypoglycemia (hi-po-gli-SE-me-ah). This is a condition that happens when your blood sugar level has fallen too low. It may be caused by taking too much diabetes medicine (insulin or pills). It may also be caused by skipping meals, eating less than usual, or exercising more than usual. Ask your caregiver for more information about hypoglycemia.
It is very important to treat symptoms of low blood sugar right away. If you have low blood sugar, eat or drink a source of carbohydrate. Some examples of carbohydrates are eight ounces (one cup) of skim milk, four ounces (one-half cup) of juice, or five to six hard candies. The following are signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia:
What is ketoacidosis?
Diabetes may also cause ketoacidosis (ke-toh-as-i--DO-sis). This is a condition that happens when your blood sugar stays too high for too long without being treated. This can cause your body to start breaking down body fats for energy rather than using blood sugar. Wastes called ketones are left behind. Ketoacidosis can be very serious and needs to be treated right away. Ask your caregiver for more information about ketoacidosis. The following are signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis:
What is Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome?
Diabetes may also cause Hyperosmolar (hi-per-oz-MO-ler) Hyperglycemic (hi-per-gli-SE-mik) Nonketotic (non-ke-TOT-ik) Syndrome (SIN-drom) (HHNS). This is a condition that happens most often in older adults with type 2 diabetes. It is usually caused by illness or an infection. With HHNS, blood sugar levels rise and the body tries to get rid of the extra sugar in your urine. If HHNS continues for a long time, you can become very dehydrated. This is a very serious condition and needs to be treated right away. The following are signs and symptoms of HHNS:
The best way for you to avoid HHNS is to do the following:
Can diabetes cause other health problems? High blood sugar levels may damage other body tissue and organs over time. Diabetes can even cause death without treatment. If your blood sugar is well controlled, other health problems may not happen. Having uncontrolled diabetes can damage your nerves, veins, and arteries (blood vessels). This can increase your chance of having a heart attack or stroke. Your chances of having eye problems, kidney problems, nerve problems, and infections also increase.
The most important thing you must do is control your blood sugar. Caregivers will work with you to help keep your blood sugar levels within a "target range." This means that your blood sugar is not too high or too low. To do this you have to find the right balance of diabetes medicine, food intake, and physical activity. Food puts sugar in your body and raises blood sugar levels. Diabetes medicine and physical activity lower blood sugar levels.
You can help control your blood sugar by eating the right foods. A diabetes nurse or a dietitian will help you learn what to eat and how food affects your diabetes. A diet high in fiber is helpful in diabetes.
You may need to take medicine to control your blood sugar. You may need to go into the hospital for more tests and treatments.
How do I check my blood sugar levels? Your caregiver will teach you how to use a glucose monitor. This is a small device that tells how much sugar is in your blood. There are many different kinds of monitors. All monitors use a small drop of blood. Usually the blood is from a prick on your finger. Caregivers will help you choose the monitor that is best for you.
Herbs and Supplements:
Before taking any herbs or supplements, ask your caregiver if it is OK. Talk to your caregiver about how much you should take. If you are using this medicine without instructions from your caregiver, follow the directions on the label. Do not take more medicine or take it more often than the directions tell you to. The herbs and supplements listed may or may not help treat your condition.
Do's and Don'ts
Other ways of treating your symptoms:
Other ways to treat your symptoms are available to you.
Talk to your caregiver if:
SEEK CARE IMMEDIATELY IF:
You are having trouble thinking clearly.
You are feeling worse even though you are following your caregiver's directions.
You have signs of a heart attack:
You have the right to help plan your care. To help with this plan, you must learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. You can then discuss treatment options with your caregivers. Work with them to decide what care may be used to treat you. You always have the right to refuse treatment.
1. Abbas ZG & Swai ABM: Evaluation of the efficacy of thiamine and pyridoxine in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. East Afr Med J 1997; 74(12):803-808.
2. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA et al: Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997; 46(11):1786-1791.
3. Boden G, Chen X, Ruiz J et al: Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1996; 45(9):1130-1135.
4. Dierkx RI, van de Hoek W, Hoekstra JB et al: Smoking and diabetes mellitus Neth J Med 1996; 48(4):150-162.
5. Faure P, Benhamou PY, Perard A et al: Lipid peroxidation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with early retina degenerative lesions: effects of an oral zinc supplementation. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995; 49(4):282-288.
6. Frati AC, Jimenez E & Ariza CR: Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia ficus indica in non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Phytother Res 1990b; 4(5):195-197.
7. Gatenby SJ, Ellis PR, Morgan LM et al: Effect of partially depolymerized guar gum on acute metabolic variable in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic Med 1996; 13(4):358-364.
8. Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ et al: Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type 1 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996; 15(5):458-461.
9. Jiang ZS, Zhang SL, Yan H: Study on syndrome-type in TCM and its correlation with superoxide dismutase and malonyldialdehyde in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1997; 17(10):597-598.
10. Keen H, Payan J, Allawi J et al: Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. Diabetes Care 1993; 16(1):8-15.
11. Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K et al: alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999; 22(2):280-287.
12. Khan A, Khattak KN, Safdar M et al: Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(12):3215-3218.
13. Lehmann R & Spinas GA: Role of physical activity in the therapy and prevention of type II diabetes mellitus. Ther Umsch 1996; 53(12):925-933.
14. Lima M, Cruz T, Pousada JC et al: The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:682-686.
15. Nicholson AS, Sklar M, Barnard ND et al: Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet. Prev Med 1999; 29(2):87-91.
16. Okada S, Hamada H, Ishii K et al : Factors related to stress in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Int Med Res 1995; 23(6):449-457.
17. Passariello N, Fici F, Giugliano D et al: Effects of pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate on blood glucose and lactate in type I and II diabetics. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1983; 21(5):252-256.
18. Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI et al: Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc 1996; 96(12):1254-1261.
19. Shanmugasundaram ER, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K et al: Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 1990a; 30(3):281-284.
20. Sharma RD, Sarkar A, Hazra DK et al: Use of fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 1996c; 16(8):1331-1339.
21. Sotaniemi E, Haapakoski E & Rautio A: Ginseng therapy in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995; 18:1373-1375.
22. Tandan R, Lewis GA, Krusinski PB et al: Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy: controlled study with long-term follow-up. Diabetes Care 1992; 15(1):8-14.
23. Urooj A, Vinutha S, Shashikala P et al: Effect of barley incorporation in bread on its quality and glycemic responses in diabetics. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1998; 49(4):265-270.
24. Vuksan V, Jenkins D, Spadafora P et al: Konjac-glucomannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:913-919.
25. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY et al: American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(7):1009-1013.
26. Welihinda J, Karunanayake EH, Sheriff MHR et al: Effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 1986; 17(3):277-282.
Last Updated: 4/4/2014
Copyright © 1984- Thomson Micromedex. All rights reserved.